Sunday, March 15, 2020

How Crime Scene Insects Reveal the Time of Death

How Crime Scene Insects Reveal the Time of Death When a suspicious death occurs, a forensic entomologist may be called to assist in processing the crime scene. Insects found on or near the body may reveal important clues about the crime, including the victims time of death. Insects colonize cadavers in a predictable sequence, also known as insect succession. The first to arrive are the necrophagous species, drawn by the strong scent of decomposition. Blow flies can invade a corpse within minutes of death, and flesh flies follow close behind. Soon after coming, the dermestid beetles, the same beetles used by taxidermists to clean skulls of their flesh. More flies gather, including house flies. Predatory and parasitic insects arrive to feed on the maggots and beetle larvae. Eventually, as the corpse dries, hide beetles and clothes moths find the remains. Forensic entomologists collect samples of crime scene insects, making sure to take representatives of every species at their latest stage of development. Because arthropod development is linked directly to temperature, she also gathers daily temperature data from the nearest available weather station. In the lab, the scientist identifies each insect to species and determines their exact developmental stage. Since the identification of maggots can be difficult, the entomologist usually raises some of the maggots to adulthood to confirm their species. Blow flies and flesh flies are the most useful crime scene insects for determining the postmortem interval or time of death. Through laboratory studies, scientists have established the developmental rates of necrophagous species, based on constant temperatures in a laboratory environment. These databases relate a species life stage to its age when developing at a constant temperature, and provide the entomologist with a measurement called accumulated degree days, or ADD. ADD represents physiological time. Using the known ADD, she can then calculate the likely age of a specimen from the corpse, adjusting for the temperatures and other environmental conditions at the crime scene. Working backward through physiological time, the forensic entomologist can provide investigators with a specific time period when the body was first colonized by necrophagous insects. Since these insects almost always find the corpse within minutes or hours of the persons death, this calculation reveals the postmortem interval with good accuracy.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Has The Architect Lost His Way Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Has The Architect Lost His Way - Essay Example This distinguishes it from the applied science of engineering which usually concentrates on the functional and feasibility aspects of a design. Architectural works are also seen as cultural and political symbols and works. Architecture has come to denote the art and discipline of creating an actual, or inferring an implied or apparent plan of any complex object or system. Architecture as a profession is the practice of providing architectural services. The practice of architecture includes the planning, designing and oversight of a building's construction by an architect. Architectural services typically address both feasibility and cost for the builder, as well as function and aesthetics for the user. The role of the architect, although constantly not evolving, has been central to the design and implementation of the environments in which people live. Architects must have the skills and knowledge to design, plan and oversee a diverse range of projects, from a small residence to a la rge stadium. The work of an architect is an interdisciplinary field, drawing upon mathematics, science, art, technology, social sciences, politics and history, and often governed by the architect's personal approach or philosophy.

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Coping with the Death of Own Child Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Coping with the Death of Own Child - Essay Example One of the most difficult losses to bear is a child's death. According to Wayne Wolfram (2006), a "child's death is often viewed as tragic" because "unlike an adult's death, it is [perceived as] unnatural"(Wolfram, 2006, sec.3 para.2). This is the common sentiment because in the normal scheme of things, a child does not die young and without yet gaining the opportunity of living a "full life"(Wolfram, 2006, sec.3 para.2). In a normal situation, no parent ever desires his or her child to be taken by death at a young age thus for those parents who have suffered from child loss, the sorrow of eternal parting leaves them truly empty and heartbroken. A child comes from the parents. The mother gives birth and lovingly works hand in hand with the father to raise the child. It is therefore quite appalling that all the efforts of parenting will only end up useless as the child early departs the world for eternity. Nevertheless death happens. Whether young or old, it comes at the appointed time and the next best thing for people to do is accept it as part of the natural course of things in this mortal life. Learning therefore how to survive a great tragedy such as losing someone whose presence we greatly value is essential. Grief is universal. It cuts across culture, gender, race and religion. Although the expression varies for each individual and is expressed in utterly diverse ways depending on one's culture and religious beliefs, bereaved parents experience and feel the same universal pain. Whatever sorrow parents feel upon the death of a child is similar to what is being felt by those who have experienced loss. Losing a child either through circumstance or disease is devastating. The grief that fathers and mothers undergo is an ordeal that can at times leave them debilitated and desperate. The sadness needs therefore to be expelled. Like those who have suffered from a loss at some point in their lives do, parents who have lost a child go through the standard stages of mourning. Going through the process of grief is vital in order for the bereaved parents to finally be able to move on with their lives. A great amount of knowledge about the different stages of mourning is a major requirement in coping with a death of a child or a loved one. According to Dr. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross (as cited by Knealing, 2002), people go through five stages of mourning after "death touches their [lives]" (Knealing, 2002). The stages are identified as follows: Stage 1 DenialLosing a child can be a shocking experience. In consequence, bereaved parents commonly find the truth of the matter hard to immediately absorb and accept. This tendency to block and dissociate one's self from reality is a "defense mechanism" (About Grief and Bereavement, n.d.) many individuals find useful when dealing with death, dying or great loss. This is a natural and helpful reaction as the loss is still too painful to acknowledge. Such somehow buffers the upsetting truth and helps parents who have lost a child to move on and look into other important concerns such as specific funeral requirements and preparation as well as carry out other daily tasks necessitating keen attention. Stage 2 Anger Anger is imminent when bereaved parents commence dealing with the veracity of death in the family. Some parents

Friday, January 31, 2020

Human Resources Management and Job Design Essay Example for Free

Human Resources Management and Job Design Essay This has been the problem with also several blue chip companies. Are there other issues which leads to commitment and loyalty to stay on in companies? The organizations could not afford to lose key individuals for some matters related to job dissatisfaction and discontentment. In such a scenario â€Å"Organizational Behavior† becomes a very essential tool in shaping employee morale. Job Design becomes all the more important and is an avenue that could lead to overall job contentment. It could be made more enriching and appealing to the employees by incorporating suitable Human Resource and Behavioral concepts. The objective of this paper is to identify some of the state of the art and tested techniques in Human Resources Management that could make the job more enriching and interesting to the employees. It aims at â€Å"Quality of Work Life† where the emphasis is given to issues like Quality, Time, Commitment, Work Culture and Social Responsibility. WE have to act to ‘Realize Our Needs’. Access to technology helps in marching forward but people have to be told to contribute to develop to their full potential, utilize resources improve relationships and acquire knowledge. Duplication of efforts to gain increased productivity, continuous quality improvement and progress could be avoided. Sharing the resources between nations can do this. Importance should be given to self-sufficiency and efficiency, stimulating original thinking resulting in effectives of the system. Introduction Emphasis of Industrial Engineering with respect to Human Resource Management and Job Design are Ergonomics, Human Factors, Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Operations Research and Management. Experimental work in the field of Biomechanics, Human factors, Computer Integrated Manufacture, Process Control, Graphics, and Computation methods are done. Ergonomics and Human Factors includes biomechanics, man-machine systems, prevention of musculo-skeletal disorders, other industrial hygiene issues, and ergonomics and human factors issues in a aviation, space systems and rehabilitation. Manufacturing Systems Engineering includes computer-integrated manufacturing; the planning, design, and control of manufacturing systems; Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing; and the application of robotics, vision systems, and artificial intelligence in manufacturing. Operations Research includes deterministic and stochastic optimization; multi-criteria decision making; expert systems and artificial neural networks; modeling and analysis of system reliability; Total Quality Management; and the modeling, management, and simulation of manufacturing and service systems. Objective Aim of Human Resource Management to increase the awareness of the real power, to direct, to make decisions, to develop ethical systems, to enhance the lives of self others and to understand that the systems should be made successful with active participation of all working partners. Process This can be achieved through the development of conceptual skills, entrepreneur skills, leadership skills, manageria l skills, technical skills and communicational skills. Focusing on effective leadership, efficient management process, productive motivation, economic manufacturing and service, required training requirement and of skills for excellence. By viewing the situation in the present perspective, by formulation of changing alternatives and by choosing the best change alternative. It can be dealt easily with each and every aspect of life with power, freedom and full self-expression. Areas of life are health, well-being, leisure, fun, relationships, career, family, plans for future, retirement, quality of life, living situation, home, religion, spirituality, finances, income, sex, self-confidence communication and enrollment. Ability to listen and be present, to take unreasonable actions, overcome fear of failure, and live an upset free life and think positively always with sense of joy fulfillment and with unimpeachable integrity. Awareness of the real power is being present to what is happening now and being able to deal with full energy commitment without any doubt or ambiguity in the mind in each and every aspect of our life. Organize To be organized keep things in the same place every time. Ask every one to do the same. Take them when required and place them back as soon as the work is over in the same order, plan in advance what all needs to be done; now, after 1hour, after 6 hours, after 10 hours, today, tomorrow, this week, next week, this month, next month, this year, next year, next five years and next ten years.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Birthcontrol and the Work Of Margaret Sanger Essay -- History Historic

Birthcontrol and the Work Of Margaret Sanger Works Cited Missing "A free race cannot be born" and no woman can call herself free who does not own and control her body. No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother"(Sanger A 35). Margaret Sanger (1870-1966)said this in one of her many controversial papers. The name of Margaret Sanger and the issue of birth control have virtually become synonymous. Birth control and the work of Sanger have done a great deal to change the role of woman in society, relationships between men and woman, and the family. The development and spread of knowledge of birth control gave women sexual freedom for the first time, gave them an individual identity in society and a chance to work without fearing they were contributing to the moral decline of society by leaving children at home. If birth control and Sanger did so much good to change the role of women in society why was birth control so controversial?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Although birth control and other forms of contraceptives did not fully become legal until the 1960’s they had been developed nearly seventy years earlier in the forms the are still prevalent today (Birth Control in America). The modern condom, or â€Å"...rubber was invented in 1870, but [it] was not the thin latex type†¦Ã¢â‚¬  that is currently prevalent in our society (Hoag Levins 2). An early form of the birth control pill, which Margaret Sanger advocated, was also in existence in the very late 1800’s (Birth Control in America). Contraception was considered an ethical issue, in that the majority of Americans believed it was a form of abortion and therefor it was considered amoral (Birth Control in America). The laws of Sanger's day â€Å"...forced women into celibacy on one hand, or abortion on the other" (Sanger B 3). Why did it take so long to spread and legalize something with the potential to better the lives and life styles of women a nd families in the early 1900’s? It could be partially attributed to the attitude of politicians of the time. President Theodore Roosevelt said "...that the American people would be committing racial suicide"(Birth Control in America). Roosevelt shared a belief, held by the majority of politicians at the time, that families of America should act, as Roosevelt put it "servants of the state; and should provide Children to build national st... ...mple of liberty" for women in America (Sanger).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It is true that birth control may not have been the sole factor in the women's movement and freedom of self, but without this key element the struggle would have been longer and harder. Birth control changed family size and structure. It gave women a new sexual freedom with their own body. It gave women a voice and their own identity, which in turn allowed them to have an identity that separates from their spouses. Birth control helped shift slightly the balance of power from only being masculine to shared between the sexes. Margaret did so much to bring the issue of birth control and its benefits in to the for fount in her time. Her writings and actions better the lives of women in America then, and today more then ever. Margaret Sanger wrote the woman "...must emerge from her ignorance and assume her responsibility..." of her own body and "...the first step is Birth Control. Through Birth Control [the woman] will attain voluntary motherhood. Having attained this, the basic freedom of her sex, [the woman] will cease to enslave herself†¦[the woman] will not stop at patching up the world; she will remake it" (Sanger A 36). Birthcontrol and the Work Of Margaret Sanger Essay -- History Historic Birthcontrol and the Work Of Margaret Sanger Works Cited Missing "A free race cannot be born" and no woman can call herself free who does not own and control her body. No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother"(Sanger A 35). Margaret Sanger (1870-1966)said this in one of her many controversial papers. The name of Margaret Sanger and the issue of birth control have virtually become synonymous. Birth control and the work of Sanger have done a great deal to change the role of woman in society, relationships between men and woman, and the family. The development and spread of knowledge of birth control gave women sexual freedom for the first time, gave them an individual identity in society and a chance to work without fearing they were contributing to the moral decline of society by leaving children at home. If birth control and Sanger did so much good to change the role of women in society why was birth control so controversial?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Although birth control and other forms of contraceptives did not fully become legal until the 1960’s they had been developed nearly seventy years earlier in the forms the are still prevalent today (Birth Control in America). The modern condom, or â€Å"...rubber was invented in 1870, but [it] was not the thin latex type†¦Ã¢â‚¬  that is currently prevalent in our society (Hoag Levins 2). An early form of the birth control pill, which Margaret Sanger advocated, was also in existence in the very late 1800’s (Birth Control in America). Contraception was considered an ethical issue, in that the majority of Americans believed it was a form of abortion and therefor it was considered amoral (Birth Control in America). The laws of Sanger's day â€Å"...forced women into celibacy on one hand, or abortion on the other" (Sanger B 3). Why did it take so long to spread and legalize something with the potential to better the lives and life styles of women a nd families in the early 1900’s? It could be partially attributed to the attitude of politicians of the time. President Theodore Roosevelt said "...that the American people would be committing racial suicide"(Birth Control in America). Roosevelt shared a belief, held by the majority of politicians at the time, that families of America should act, as Roosevelt put it "servants of the state; and should provide Children to build national st... ...mple of liberty" for women in America (Sanger).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It is true that birth control may not have been the sole factor in the women's movement and freedom of self, but without this key element the struggle would have been longer and harder. Birth control changed family size and structure. It gave women a new sexual freedom with their own body. It gave women a voice and their own identity, which in turn allowed them to have an identity that separates from their spouses. Birth control helped shift slightly the balance of power from only being masculine to shared between the sexes. Margaret did so much to bring the issue of birth control and its benefits in to the for fount in her time. Her writings and actions better the lives of women in America then, and today more then ever. Margaret Sanger wrote the woman "...must emerge from her ignorance and assume her responsibility..." of her own body and "...the first step is Birth Control. Through Birth Control [the woman] will attain voluntary motherhood. Having attained this, the basic freedom of her sex, [the woman] will cease to enslave herself†¦[the woman] will not stop at patching up the world; she will remake it" (Sanger A 36).

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Importance Of Adequate Prenatal Care Health And Social Care Essay

Critical analysis of research surveies is one of the most of import stairss towards incorporation of grounds into pattern ( Burns & A ; Grove, 2007 ) . This paper is an effort towards accomplishing this end. The paper critically analyzes the article â€Å" Group prenatal attention and preterm birth weight: Consequences from a matched cohort survey at public clinics † by Ickovics et al. ( 2003 ) . This purpose will be achieved by consecutive reviewing the research job, the literature reappraisal, rules of research moralss employed in the survey, the underlying theoretical model, the research hypothesis, the sampling technique, the research design, informations aggregation methods, the analysis, and the recommendation proposed by the writers. Finally, the paper will stop with an overall assessment of the strength and restrictions of the survey.Rationale:This peculiar research paper was analyzed as the construct of group prenatal attention has non been investigated in item yet. W hile reexamining the literature on the stated subject the limited supporting groundss for group prenatal attention was found. Merely 01 RCT ( Ickovics et al.2007 ) , 01 matched cohort survey ( Ickovics et al.2003 ) , and 03 pilot surveies with descriptive analysis were found ( Baldwin, 2006 ; Grady and Bloom, 1998 ; Rising, 1998 ) . The comparative analysis of all 05 surveies is shown in appendix 1. Chosen survey is the lone one which examined the impact of group versus single prenatal attention on birth weight and gestational age.DiscussionThe job:The job studied by Ickovics et Al. ( 2003 ) is that, whether group prenatal attention has a important impact on the perinatal result like birth weight, and gestational age. This job is highly important to nursing, for a figure of grounds. The first ground as described by Ickovics EL Al. ( 2003 ) , is the important relationship of these perinatal results with â€Å" neonatal morbidity and mortality † ( p. 1052 ) . Neonatal mortality is one of the countries of concern for nursing due to high mortality rates around the universe and particularly in developing states ( Straughn et al.,2003 ) .Purpose:The intent for carry oning the survey has been explicitly stated by Ickovics et Al. ( 2003 ) . The declared intent can be accomplished really good because both the results that are birth weight and gestational age, are measureable and therefore the research job is testable ( Haber & A ; Cameon, 2005 ) . A quantitative attack is suited for this survey as the variables are quantifiable and can be described objectively in Numberss. Ickovics et Al. ( 2003 ) have introduced the job statement after giving a brief background of the importance of the equal prenatal attention, and the factors that determine the equal prenatal attention. They so introduce the topic of group antenatal attention as a â€Å" structural invention † in the sphere of antenatal attention ( Ickovicd et al. , 2003, p. 1052 ) , and so portion the job statement that this advanced method of proviso of prenatal attention has non been tested yet. The writers have stated the implicit in premises of the survey. Ickovics et Al. ( 2003 ) believe that more clip the pregnant adult females spent together, the better will be their apprehension of the wellness behaviours, and they will have more societal support from each other. This will cut down their hazard behaviours for case smoke taking to low birth weight. The restrictions of the survey have besides been discussed explicitly in the article Ickovics et Al. ( 2003 ) admit that their survey is limited because of non-random choice of the adult females for group antenatal attention. The restriction is realistic because the pattern was already in topographic point and research workers wanted to detect the results in relation to the two different attacks to care. Furthermore, this is an built-in characteristic of the cohort design that the groups are selected on the footing of their exposure or non-exposure to a peculiar phenomenon which is non controlled by the research worker, inste ad the pick is made by the topic themselves. This characteristic of the cohort design makes it prone to â€Å" choice prejudice. â€Å" ( Rochon et al. , 2005 ) .Reappraisal of LiteratureThe reappraisal of the literature presented by Ickovics et al. , ( 2003 ) is comprehensive. It starts by stressing the importance of equal prenatal attention in footings of perinatal results. It so focuses on the factors that make the prenatal attention adequate. The writers so depict the group antenatal attention as a construction invention designed to do the prenatal attention adequate, and they appreciate that this new attack has non been tested yet for its efficaciousness in bettering antenatal results. The reappraisal so proceeds with a brief description of Centering Pregnancy Program and its constituents, which eventually leads to the statement of intent of the survey. The reappraisal ends with a principle for the choice of survey population that is black and Latinas adult females who are vu lnerable for inauspicious perinatal outcomes. There is an apparent relationship of the reappraisal with the intent of survey in that the writers have presented merely those surveies that are pertinent to perinatal attention and that have established the efficaciousness of group attention in other population. The reappraisal includes a mix of recent and old surveies. As this survey was accepted for publication in 2003, most of the surveies cited in the reappraisal were non current, that is those surveies were non published in the last five old ages of the day of the month when this survey was accepted for publication ( Burns & A ; Groove, 2007 ) ; and there are merely 10 out of 26 surveies, that were current and were published in the last five old ages of the day of the month of credence of the survey under consideration, for publication. The reappraisal clearly indicates that the other intercessions that have been planned to augment antenatal attention were non found to be effectual in bettering the adult females ‘s perinatal result.Ethical Consideration:The survey has been designed in a mode that there are minimal hazards to the topics. Since this is a non experimental survey and merely intends to detect the impact of an intercession that is already in advancement without pull stringsing any of the variables, hence there are minimum hazards associated with it ( Rochon et al, 2005 ) . However, the research workers have non made any excess attempt to maximise the benefits for the topics. There is no reference of how and when informed consent was attained from the topics, but this may hold non been reported as it was an experimental survey and most likely was related to quality betterment and do non necessitate consent. The research workers have obtained the blessing of research from institutional reappraisal boards at these clinics. Besides, at one point, the writers have described their attempts to keep namelessness of the topics. The writers explained t hat while choosing matched cohort for the survey they entered all the information needed to choose the cohort, except for the patient designation information.Theoretical/Conceptual Model:The survey is based on an implicit in model that is the focus oning gestation theoretical account. The implicit in premises of the survey are derived from the theoretical account that includes the belief that larning in groups promote shared support, alteration in behaviour, and job resolution accomplishments and it has important impact on the birth result ( Rising, 1998 ) . The principle for the usage of the model is apparent from the fact that the full construct of group prenatal attention is based on this theoretical account and implicit in premises. In fact, the research job and the intent are besides derived from the same theoretical account, because the intent of the survey is to analyze the impact of group antenatal attention.Hypothesis:The hypothesis to be tested by the survey is officially stated in the article. The hypothesis is derived from the research job and hence predicts that â€Å" babies of adult females in group prenatal attention would hold significantly higher birth weight and be less likely to be delivered preterm compared with those who received single prenatal attention † ( Ickovics et Al, 2003, p. 1052 ) . This is a complex hypothesis as it predicts the relationship between one independent variable ( proviso of group antenatal attention ) , and two independent variables ( birth weight and gestational age ) . The hypothesis can besides be categorized as directional hypothesis, as it predicts the expected way of the relationship between proviso of group prenatal attention, birth weight, and gestational age. Harmonizing to Polit & A ; Beck ( 2008 ) â€Å" a directional hypothesis indicates that the research worker has rational committedness to the hypothesized result, which might ensue in prejudice. † ( p.99 ) . Haber & A ; Cameron ( 2005 ) hence suggest that directional hypothesis should merely be formed on the footing of sound literature groundss and theoretical footing. In this instance, Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) have got sound literature support, and since group prenatal attention is one of the ways to augment the content of antenatal attention ; hence, the writers have hypothesized that group prenatal attention will take to improved birth weight and gestational age. Besides, there is sound theoretical base to this hypothesis, as it is based on the focus gestation theoretical account. The hypothesis is spelled out clearly and it objectively describes the result variables ( Polit & A ; Back, 2008 ) , that is perinatal results have been quantified and objectively described as birth weight and gestational age.Sampling:Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) clearly described the population as â€Å" Black and Hispanic pregnant adult females of low socioeconomic position, come ining antenatal attention at 24 or less hebdomads of gestation. † ( p.1051 ) .The writers have besides described in item the features of the sample such as race, age, para, and metropolis of abode. The elaborate and comprehensive description of the sample gives an in deepness apprehension of the sample ‘s features and determines the generalisation of the findings to a specific population based on these features ( Haber & A ; Singh, 2005 ) . In this instance, looking at the features of the sample, the findings can be generalized to black and Latino pregnant adult females of low socioeconomic group, aged 25 or younger, as more than 85 % of the sample consisted of black adult females who were 25 old ages old or younger. Sample ‘s features help in determine heterogeneousness or homogeneousness of the sample ( Haber & A ; Singh, 2005 ) . In this instance, some of the sample ‘s features that had the possible to move as cofounders, for case age, race, para, history of preterm labour and entire fi gure of visits were matched in both the groups. This resulted in homogeneousness among the two groups in footings of the above mentioned features. The matching of the two groups on the footing of these features besides reduced the possible sampling prejudice that could hold resulted if the groups would ‘ve been different in footings of these features and the ensuing wellness behaviours. If the groups were non matched, these differences in groups could hold accounted for the differences in results, instead than intercession itself. Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) have described the sample choice procedure in item. They have besides indicated the possible sampling prejudice due to miss of randomisation while inscribing topics in group prenatal attention. Women, who voluntarily enrolled themselves in the group antenatal attention programme at the clinics, were recruited as participants in the group that received group prenatal attention. Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) have besides comprehensively described the controls that they have utilized to minimise trying mistake or trying prejudice, that is, they have indiscriminately selected the comparing group through a computing machine programme on the footing of first available patient with closest bringing day of the month, by fiting some of the features of the intervention group. The clinics from where the topics were recruited were besides selected by non chance trying method, choosing merely those clinics that served minority adult females from low socio economic background. The non chance trying method employed in the survey fits good with the degree of enquiry and design of the survey as Haber & A ; Singh ( 2005 ) supported â€Å" non experimental surveies normally use non chance, purposive sampling method. † ( p. 53 ) The sample size taken by Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) , that is N=458 is sufficiently big. Each group had 229 research topics. The sufficiency of the sample size was assured by carry oning a power analysis that â€Å" 229 braces had a power of 0.80 to observe a little effectaˆÂ ¦reflecting the ability to observe a difference between the two intervention groups of 155 g. † ( p. 1053 ) . Harmonizing to Burns & A ; Groove ( 2007 ) the power of 0.8 is the minimal acceptable degree of power for any survey.Research Design:Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) have used cohort design, which is besides known as longitudinal prospective design. The cohort design, which is a non experimental design, is appropriate for the degree of enquiry of the survey. In this the research workers intended to analyze the difference between the results of the adult females who received group perinatal attention versus who received single attention. LoBiondo-Wood, Haber & A ; Singh ( 2005 ) supported that longitudina l design is rather appropriate for proving the difference between the two groups in footings of results variables. However, Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) could hold used an experimental design for this survey, if they wanted to find the cause and consequence relationship between the group prenatal attention and perinatal results. This would besides hold assured randomisation of topics into intercession and control group and would hold given a higher degree of grounds. However, they may hold chosen non experimental survey design instead than experimental design to analyze the impact of group prenatal attention in a natural scene, and non in a control survey puting. As discussed in the sampling subdivision, possible effects of unwanted variables like race, age, para, metropolis of abode, history of preterm labour, and entire figure of antenatal visits have been controlled by Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) by fiting the cohorts on the footing of these features, in order to guarantee important inter nal cogency of the survey ( Polit & A ; Beck, 2008 ) . Besides, Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) have recruited a big sample to guarantee a power of 0.8 for the survey, which is besides one of the ways to maximise the internal cogency of the survey ( Polit & A ; Beck, 2008 ) .Data Collection:Before informations aggregation the research workers have to operationalize the variables of involvement ( Sullivan-Bolyani, et al 2005 ) . Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) have operationalized gestational age as term or preterm based on the hebdomads of gestation as measured by the last catamenial period and ultrasound. Subjects ‘ demographics information and the figure of antenatal visits were obtained from the medical records of the clinic. It has non been mentioned that who determined gestational age through ultrasound, who measured the newborn ‘s weight, and who retrieved informations from medical records. It is truly of import to cognize who collected informations in order to set up its truth, as the expertness and preparation of the information aggregator has important impact on the rightness and preciseness of informations ( Sullivan-Bolyai et Al, 2005 ) .Quantitative Analysis:Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) have used both descriptive and illative statistics to analyze the information. Since the intent of the survey was to analyze the differences between the two groups, therefore the illative statistics was used that is McNemar trial, which is appropriate to the degree of enquiry due to fit groups. It is besides appropriate to the cohort design as this design besides intends to mensurate differences between the two groups, in footings of result variables ( Polit & A ; Beck, 2008 ) . The other illative statistical trial used is paired t-test which is besides appropriate for the survey as it is used to prove differences between the agencies of two groups that are matched or paired with each other on the footing of certain features ( Polit & A ; Beck, 2008 ) . Another statistic used in the survey is the F statistic. It appears as if the writers have used F statistic when using multiple additive arrested development because F statistic has been used while bespeaking the interaction consequence between birth weight and preterm bringing ( p. 1054 ) . Linear arrested development is used to explicate how much variableness in result variable is attributable to the independent variable ( Burns & A ; Groove, 2007 ) . The writers have used descriptive statistic to depict the distribution of demographic variables among the topics like age, race and para. They besides have used descriptive analysis to depict the distribution of demographic variables among the distribution of results variables ( birth weight and gestational age ) among the sample. Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) have used parametric every bit good as non parametric statistics, for case t-test for matched braces is a parametric trial while McNemar trial is a non parametric trial. As few variables have been measured on the ratio degree of measuring, for case figure of antenatal visits, hence Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) had the autonomy to use parametric statistic. Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) had measured the result variables of birth weight and gestational age on nominal degree. The birth weight was categorized as low birth weight ( less than 2500 g ) , and really low birth weight ( less than 1500 g ) and the gestational age was categorized as term or preterm ( less than 37 hebdomads of gestation ) . Therefore, research workers were besides able to use non parametric statistic that is McNemar trial ( Polit & A ; Beck, 2008 ) . The consistence in the consequences of descriptive and illative statistics confirms the rightness of the findings ( Polit & A ; Beck, 2008 ) . There is a logical nexus between the statistical analysis and the findings of the survey. Besides, there is consistence in the consequences presented in Numberss and consequence presented in text, for case in the above illustration, the statistical consequence shows p & lt ; 0.01 which is statistically important, and this is good supported by the account that is birth weight was greater in babies of adult females who received group prenatal attention versus single prenatal attention. However, Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) have non explicitly stated whether they have taken unvarying degree of significance for all the statistical trials performed or are different for each trial, and if so so what is the degree of significance for each trial. The graphical and tabular presentations are accurate and appropriate and lucifers with the findings presented in text ( Sullivan-Bolyayi, et Al, 2005 ) . The statistics presented in these tabular arraies and the graphs are harmonizing to their appropriate degree of measuring. For case in table 2, mean and standard divergences have merely been calculated for the birth weight which is the lone ratio degree informations in that tabular array, the other variables that are at nominal degree of measuring were calculated in per centums ( Sullivan-Bolyayi, et Al, 2005 ) . The writers have non merely established the significance of findings, but they have besides described the clinical significance of the consequences.Decision and Recommendations:The consequences derived from informations analysis are clearly stated and explained with mention to the research inquiry and hypothesis. The findings are stated compactly and the writers have related their findings with the research intent and its i mplicit in premises. Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) have discussed that the findings can be generalized among adult females who are vulnerable for preterm births. This seems to be an overgeneralization beyond the survey population, because the survey sample and the mark population was black and Latino adult females who were high hazard for preterm birth and were of low socioeconomic position. These findings may non be applicable to all the adult females who are at hazard of preterm births without stipulating their ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Ickovics et Al ( 2003 ) have besides discussed the possible benefits of implementing the findings. The writers have besides recommended that farther research needs to be done for finding the exact mechanisms involved in group prenatal attention that consequences in improved perinatal result. Another recommendation is to widely use group antenatal attention in future, nevertheless, the writers besides appreciate that it is non easy to present such large structural alterations.Strengths and restrictions of the survey:Overall, the survey is a good attempt in analyzing the impact of group antenatal attention on perinatal results. A good formulated hypothesis, relevant and comprehensive literature reappraisal, an in deepness history of sample ‘s features, good thought research design and statistical analysis are strengths of the survey. However, randomisation of topics at the clip of enlisting, employment of research moralss such as voluntary engagement and realistic generalisation of the findings would hold added more strength to it.Appendix 1Pregnancy results: Group vs single prenatal attentionSurveyStudy DesignResults: Group Vs Individual Prenatal CareOR ( 95 % CI )NNTIckovics JR et Al ( 2007 ) . RCT N=1047 Preterm births 0.67 ( 0.44-0.98 ) 25 Preterm births in African American adult females 0.59 ( 0.38-0.92 ) 17 Breastfeeding induction 1.73 ( 1.28-2.35 ) 8 Less-than-adequate prenatal care* 0.68 ( 0.50-0.91 ) 16ARESULTS ( P VALUE )AIckovics JR et Al ( 2003 ) . Matched cohort N=458 Birth weight ( g ) 3228 V 3159 ( P & lt ; .01 )–Preterm birth weight ( g ) 2398 V 1990 ( P & lt ; .05 )–Grady MA et Al ( 2004 ) . Cohort survey with clinic comparing N=124 ( intercession ) Preterm births & lt ; 37 wk ( % ) 10.5 V 25.7 ( P & lt ; .02 ) 7 Low birth weight & lt ; 2500 g ( % ) 8.8 V 22.9 ( P & lt ; .02 ) 7 Breastfeeding at infirmary discharge ( % ) 46 V 28 ( P & lt ; .02 ) 6 Rising ( 1998 ) Descriptive analysis N=111 3rd trimester exigency room visits ( % ) 26 V 74 ( P=.001 ) 2 Baldwin ( 2006 ) 2-group pre-/post-test design N=98 Change in antenatal cognition scoresaˆ 0.98 V 0.4 ( P=.03 )–CI, assurance interval ; NN T, figure needed to handle ; OR, odds ratio. *Kotelchuck Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, a validated marking graduated table embracing timing of induction of attention, figure of visits, and quality and content of antenatal attention. Kotelchuck M. An rating of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and the proposed Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. Am J Public Health. 1994 ; 84:1414-1420. Referee: Williams, K.J andA Kaufmann, L ( 2009 ) The diary of household pattern, 58, ( 7 )

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

My Young Literacy Learner Who Is A Prep One Student Essay

Leila is my young literacy learner who is a prep one student. Reading books that are at appropriate learning level is the way where children benefit most from teacher guidance (Hill, 2015). I assume Leila as an early reading leaner. The book that I chose is at approximately reading levels 9 to 11. It is called ‘What s the Matter, Aunty May’ which is about a little boy who is trying to do some housework for his aunty but keeping making troubles. Aunty May witnessed the whole trail of destruction her nephew had left behind whilst politely trying to offer his assistance, feeling distressed and mad. There are several reasons why I choose to read this book to her. Firstly, the story is related to children’s world. Hill (2015) mentioned that building on the familiar which means making connections to children’s world acts as a driving vehicle for literacy development. She may help her parents to do chores at home and the illustrations of the little boy doing diffe rent housework in the book could arouse her similar memory. To gain her attention and interests, I choose a book with vivid and funny illustrations. Hill (2015) stated that picture books offer young children the visual context and additional information that is conveyed in longer paragraphs though complex language. Colorful pictures, exaggerate facial expressions, funny figure images and continuous illustrations provide high level of support for children’s understanding. In order to prepare an engaging andShow MoreRelatedPersonal Reflection In Early Childhood Education1907 Words   |  8 Pagesschool based environment. I feel though that my previous experience did aid me in this practicum however. I already knew that play is an integral part of a young child’s learning and how those children need to feel safe, secure, and cared for as well as being educated. Knowing that the bond between a teacher and child is a vital part of being able to educate them well, allowed me to focus on building those relationships with the children and getting to know who they are, what they like and how they reactRead MoreLevel 3 Award IN Education And Training Essay4209 Words   |  17 Pagesshould be to teach in a way which engages learners and actively engage learning during every lesson irrespective of the environment. In my position as IT manager at Barnsley College there are roles and responsibilities that are set to facilitate personal and organisational goals the same can be said for teaching and learning. As a teacher/trainer I will need to be able to adapt my style of teaching by being a friend, counsellor, mentor to ensure that my learners are able to rely on me to meet their individualRead MoreTeaching Problems15782 Words   |  64 Pageseffective pupil-centred teaching and learning of the English language in Tanzanian government primary school with recommendations Katy Allen MBE Director, Village Education Project Kilimanjaro Presented at The Forum on Community of Practice of Learner Centred Learning in Tanzania held at the Tanzanian Episcopal Conference Centre, Kurasini 18th – 19th August 2008 PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS AND THE PROBLEMS FACED WITH TEACHING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. An analysis of the obstacles in the way of effectiveRead MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words   |  604 Pagespromised profit sharing, which has resulted in up to three weeks additional pay in profit sharing bonuses in some years. The test of the change is in the results. GE Fanuc’s revenue is up women employees, who composed about three-fourths of the bank’s workers. As a result, several years later about one-fourth of all managers and executives are women. Similar attention also was focused on other diverse groups of employees. So that all employees were given opportunities to grow and learn, the Bank of Montreal’s